Selected references

We will soon send out a short reading list to all participants. In the mean time please browse the list below.

Following is a selection of references with a heavy emphasis on papers authored by invited speakers at the workshop.


  1. Breslow, NE, and Day, NE (1980) Statistical Methods In Cancer Research: The Analysis of Cohort Studies, Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer.
  2. Breslow, NE, and Day, NE (1980) Statistical Methods In Cancer Research: The Analysis of Case-Control Studies, Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer.


  1. Lee WC, Wang LY. Reducing population stratification bias: stratum matching is better than exposure. J Clin Epidemiol. 2009 Jan;62(1):62-6. Epub 2008 Jul 10.PMID: 18619810.
  2. Lee WC. Case-control association studies with matching and genomic controlling. Genet Epidemiol. 2004 Jul;27(1):1-13.PMID: 15185398
  3. Rigby AS, Robinson MB.Statistical methods in epidemiology. IV. Confounding and the matched pairs odds ratio. Disabil Rehabil. 2000 Apr 15;22(6):259-
  4. Shinn EH, Swartz RJ, Thornton BB, Spiess PE, Pisters LL, Basen-Engquist KM. Testis cancer survivors' health behaviors: comparison with age-matched relative and demographically matched population controls.J Clin Oncol. 2010 May 1;28(13):2274-9. Epub 2010 Apr 5.PMID: 20368572
  5. Siegmund KD, Langholz B. Stratified case sampling and the use of family controls. Genet Epidemiol. 2001 Apr;20(3):316-27.


  1. Cologne J, Langholz B.Selecting controls for assessing interaction in nested case-control studies. J Epidemiol. 2003 Jul;13(4):193-202.PMID: 12934962
  2. London SJ, Pogoda JM, Hwang KL, Langholz B, Monroe KR, Kolonel LN, Kaune WT, Peters JM, Henderson BE. Residential magnetic field exposure and breast cancer risk: a nested case-control study from a multiethnic cohort in Los Angeles County, California. Am J Epidemiol 2003;158(10):969-80.
  3. Langholz B, Richardson D. Are nested case-control studies biased? Epidemiology. 2009 May; 20(3):321-9.
  4. Scheike, TH and Juul, A. (2004) Maximum likelihood estimation for Cox's regression model under nested case-control sampling. Biostatistics 5:193-206
  5. Langholz B, Clayton D. Sampling strategies in nested case-control studies. Environ Health Perspect. 1994 Nov;102 Suppl 8:47-51.PMID: 7851330
  6. Langholz B, Thomas DC. Efficiency of cohort sampling designs: some surprising results. Biometrics. 1991 Dec;47(4):1563-71.PMID: 1786329


  1. Prentice. RL (1986). A case-cohort design for epidemiologic cohort studies and disease prevention trials. Biometrika, 42:1-11
  2. Langholz B, Thomas DC, Witte J, Peters RK. "A population-based case-cohort evaluation of the efficacy of mammographic screening for breast cancer".  Am J Epidemiol. 1995 Aug 15;142(4):448-50. No abstract available. PMID: 7625412
  3. Langholz B, Thomas DC. Nested case-control and case-cohort methods of sampling from a cohort: a critical comparison. Am J Epidemiol. 1990 Jan;131(1):169-76.PMID: 2403467
  4. Borgan, Ø., Langholz, B., Samuelsen, S.O., Goldstein, L. and Pogoda, J. (2000). Exposure stratified case-cohort designs. Lifetime Data Anal. 6, 39-58.


  1. Borgan, Ø. and Olsen, E.F. (1999). The efficiency of simple and counter-matched nested case-control sampling. Scand. J. Statist. 26, 493-509.
  2. Andrieu N, Goldstein AM, Thomas DC, Langholz B. Counter-matching in studies of gene-environment interaction: efficiency and feasibility. Am J Epidemiol. 2001 Feb 1;153(3):265-74.PMID: 11157414
  3. Langholz, B. and Borgan, Ø. (1995). Counter-matching: A stratified nested case-control sampling method. Biometrika 82, 69-79.


  1. Langholz B. Use of cohort information in the design and analysis of case-control studies. Scandinavian Journal of Statistics 2007;34:120-136.
  2. Borgan, Ø. (2001). Cohort sampling in epidemiological studies. Bulletin of the International Statistical Institute 53(1), 369-372.
  3. Langholz B, Goldstein L. Conditional logistic analysis of case-control studies with complex sampling. Biostatistics. 2001 Mar;2(1):63-84.PMID: 12933557
  4. Langholz B, Richardson DB. Fitting general relative risk models for survival time and matched case-control analysis. Am J Epidemiol. 2010 Feb 1;171(3):377-83. Epub 2009 Dec 31.PMID: 20044379
  5. Samuelsen, SO (1997) A pseudolikelihood approach to analysis of nested case-control studies. Biometrika, 84:379-394
  6. Borgan, Ø. and Langholz, B. (1998). Risk set sampling designs for proportional hazards models. Chapter 4 in Statistical Analysis of Medical Data. New Developments (eds. B. S. Everitt and G. Dunn). Arnold, London.
  7. Goldstein, L and Langholz, B (1996) Risk set sampling in epidemiologic cohort studies. Statistical Science 11:35-53
  8. Borgan, Ø. and Samuelsen, S.O. (2003). A review of cohort sampling designs for Cox's regression model: Potentials in epidemiology. Norsk epidemiologi (Norwegian Journal of Epidemiology) 13, 239-248.
  9. Langholz B, Richardson D. Empirical evaluation of complex epidemiologic study designs: workplace exposure and cancer. J Occup Environ Med. 2008 Jan;50(1):1-2; author reply 2-3. Comment on:  J Occup Environ Med. 2007 Sep;49(9):953-9.
  10. Chen, KN. Generalized case-cohort sampling. (2001) J. Roy. Statist. Soc. Ser. B, 63:791-809.
  11. Samuelsen, SO, Ånestad, H, and Skrondal, A. Stratified case-cohort analysis of general cohort sampling designs. Scandinavian Journal of Statistics, 34:103-119
  12. Kulich, M and Lin, DY. (2004) Improving the efficiency of relative-risk estimation in case-cohort studies. Journal of the american statistical association, 99:832-844
  13. Breslow, NE, Lumley, T, Ballantyne, CM, Chambless, LE, and Kulich, M. (2009) Using the whole cohort in the analysis of case-cohort data. American Journal of Epidemiology, 169:1398-1405,


  1. Langholz B. Case-control studies = odds ratios: blame the retrospective model.Epidemiology. 2010 Jan;21(1):10-2. No abstract available. PMID: 20010206
  2. Suissa S, Edwardes MD, Boivin JF. External comparisons from nested case-control designs. Epidemiology. 1998 Jan;9(1):72-8.
  3. Borgan O, Langholz B. Estimation of excess risk from case-control data using Aalen's linear regression model. Biometrics. 1997 Jun;53(2):690-7.PMID: 9192457
  4. Langholz, B. and Borgan, Ø. (1997). Estimation of absolute risk from nested case-control data. Biometrics 53, 767-774. Correction 59, 451.
  5. Breslow, NE, Lumley, T, Ballantyne, CM, Chambless, LE, and Kulich, M. (2009) Improved horvitz-thompson estimation of model parameters for two-phase stratifed samples: Applications in epidemiology. Stat. Biosci, 1:32-49
  6. Scheike TH, Martinussen T (2004). Maximum likelihood estimation for Cox’s regression model under case–cohort sampling. Scandinavian Journal of Statistics, 31:283-293.


  1. Reilly M, Torrång A, Klint A. Stat Med. 2005 Dec 30;24(24):4009-19. Re-use of case-control data for analysis of new outcome variables.
  2. Huberman M, Langholz B."Combined analysis of matched and unmatched case-control studies: comparison of risk estimates from different studies".Am J Epidemiol. 1999 Jul 15;150(2):219-20.
  3. Salim A, Hultman C, Sparen P, Reilly M (2009). Combining data from two nested case-control studies of overlapping cohorts to improve efficiency. Biostatistics, 10:70-79.
  4. Saarela, O, Kulathinal, A, Arjas, E and Läärä, E (2008) Nested case-control data utilized for multiple outcomes: A likelihood approach and alternatives. Statist. Med., 27:5991-6008